Theory of Islamic State

Abu’l Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi (350-436 A.H/972-1058 A.D — age 86) was the first political thinker in the history of Islam.  He was from Shafa’i fiqh.  (Correction: The course book says 364 A.H/975 A.D… while mentions 448 after Hijra and Wikipedia says 972 A.D…The first Hijri year was 622 A.D…. The difference between 972 and 622 is 350, which means he was born in 350 A.H)

Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ahmed al-Ghazali (436-489 A.H/1058-1111 A.D — age 53) was born near Tus in Iran.  He wrote many books on political issues out of which “Ihya-ulUloom/The Revival of Religious Sciences” was his masterpiece.

Abu Zaid Abd ar-Rahman ibn Khaldun (710-784 A.H/1332-1406 A.D — 74) was born at Tunis in an Arab family.  He was a historian, a political scientist, a scholar of Islamic law and the founder of the sciences of civilization or umran (as he called a new science) now known as sociology. (Correction: The course book says 724 A.H while Wikipedia and say 732 A.H…the difference between 1332 and 622 is 710 which means he was born in 710 A.H)

Were these three the only political scientists or experts of Muslim ummah who dared to present a present the theory of an Islamic state?  Al-Mawardi appeared as the first political thinker of Islam after a gap of more than three hundred years after the death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in 10 A.H/632 A.D.  What were the Muslims doing during that time?  1406 to 2010 – 604 years have passed idle…or do we know any grand personalities who have made achievements on scholarly basis and gained international fame…Allama Iqbal (1255-1316 A.H/1877-1938 A.D — age 61), Maulana Mawdudi (1903-1979 A.D — age 76), Hurun Yahya, Shiekh Hamza Yusuf….. got a new name Hammad yousuf from Pakistan ( as the philosopher and founder of MetaExistence school of thought and the presenter of a new political system against the Western one but couldn’t find more about it.

The fact is that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the first political scientist and founder of a Islamic state.  Then the first four caliphs contributed politically to improve the system and so on.

Al-Mawardi, Al-Ghazali and Ibn-Khaldun… Can Allama Iqbal be counted as the fourth political scientist/political thinker, why or why not?  He wasn’t only a poet or a thinker or a philosopher.  He was a scholar of Qur’an as he explained it in poetic form and that distinguishes him from all other scholars…a better scholar that he argued with his father regarding the change of faith and convinced him.  He knew the languages.  He knew the history.  He was a political scientist, the presenter of a political theory….the ideology which helped in forming the world’s largest Islamic state.  The whole political movement of Pakistan was based upon his theory.

The spirit of 1947 can be revived not only by remembering and mourning over the sacrifices of the common Muslims, but also by recalling the theory, the ideology, by discussing different aspects of the movement in the classrooms.



About Rubik
I'm Be-Positive. Life is like tea; hot, cold or spicy. I enjoy every sip of it. I love listening to the rhythm of my heart, that's the best

7 Responses to Theory of Islamic State

  1. Hibah Naz says:

    Okay. So you’ve discussed the dates and if there were any other political scientists besides these three or four. I’m wondering where the theory is cause the title says Theory of Islamic State.

  2. D.I.D. says:

    “Few individuals significantly alter the course of history. Fewer still modify the map of the world. Hardly anyone can be credited with creating a nation-state. Muhammad Ali Jinnah did all three.”
    – Stanley Wolpert

  3. umersultan says:

    The Islamic political thinkers and philosophers always existed in each and every century, by the grace of Allah it is the educational system of Pakistan that keeps us ignorant about it.

    As you said the Prophet Muhammad being the Last & Final Messenger of God was at the top of the Islamic Political thought giving us instructions from the Holy Quran and from his Sunnah. After the Noble Messenger, comes his 1st four Rightly Guided Caliphs- Abu Bakar, Umar ibn Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, & Ali ibn Abi Talib.

    After these 4, the 5th one is the Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, also known as Umar II. The Khilafah was revived by him. Besides him among the companions we also have Muawiya ibn Sufyan, people discredit him for his sons shortfalls but he was a Sahabi and Muawiya was indeed a Politician of his time.

    Remember almost all the major Imams also contributed to the Political thought but they abstained from Politics because they didn’t want to be associated with the corruption and oppression that the leaders of Ummayyads and Abbasids used to do. Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Ahmed and Imam Shafee.

    Then we have Ibn Abir-Rabi (9th Century A.C),
    Farabi (870-950)
    Nizamul-Mulk Tusi (1017-1091) [*how can you forget him :)]
    Imam Ghazzali (1058-1111)
    Imam Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328) [*Revived Islam to a whole new level]
    Ibn Khuldun [1332-1406]
    Aurangzeb Alamgir [1618-1707] (Compiled magnum opus Fatwa Alamgiri )
    Shah Waliullah [1703-1762] [The name every South Asian Muslim knows but total ignorant about everything related to Shah Waliullah 😦 ]
    Hakeemul Ummat Mawlana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (1863-1943) [Besides being a great Spiritual leader and a political author he told his students that he wished to see an Islamic State in Hindustan where the South Asian Muslims can preserve their Deen and establish Sharia! ]
    Imam Zafar Uthmani [student of Mawlana Thanwi, wrote 12 or 21 volumes in defense of Pakistan Movement]
    Syed Abul Ala’ Mawdudi [1903- 1979]
    Late Mufti Shafi Usmani & his 2 Sons- Mufti Rafi Uthmani & Mufti Taqi Uthmani.

    We should also not forget the Tipu Sultan. He had a very interesting political thought of his own kingdom, at odds with Mughals he called his kingdom “Mumlikat-e-Khudadad” or (Kingdom of God) and gave his allegiance to the Ottoman Caliphate.

  4. umersultan says:

    Among the Shi’ites, the Imam Khomeini is the most prominent that we all know. Although, the Shiite Scholars outside Iran do not consider Khmoneini’s political philosophy to be accurate. Like Iraqi Shiite Scholars-Sistani and others have a different Political Philosophy than Khmoneni.

    I don’t see how Allama Iqbal can be considered to be a Scholar of Quran. He wrote extensively on Philosophy & Islamic Philosophy and was very persistent on reviving the Muslim Youth towards a Muslim State. He didn’t study the Sciences of Quran from any scholar and the independent study of Quran doesn’t make one a Scholar of Quran! He was well connected with Ulema (Islamic Scholars) like Mawlana Mawdudi and the other Orthodox Ulema, some of whom would later disagree with him on Pakistan Movement.

    There is a lot that us Muslims need to study about the Political Philosophies. But before we do that, we need to study & understand the philosophy brought by the Prophet Muhammad, because we should start first from the Understanding what the Usool of Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence) allow us and stop us as far as Politics is concerned.

    May Allah show us guidance, Ameen.

  5. Rubik says:

    Umar, thanks for your valuable comment and for sharing the information.
    How can I remember Nizamul Mulk Tusi when I never studied him. 🙂

    Actually one part of the curriculum of Political Science (Bachelors level) is dedicated to ‘state’. The recommended books are very confusing. The chapter of Islamic State is missing the argument that under what conditions would there be a need of an Islamic state. Why some Muslim philosophers felt like they should compose a theory of an Islamic state while the ideal state of Medina had already existed?

    So I am in a try to solve this issue for me and my daughter. Plus we feel that the chapter wouldn’t be completed without mentioning Iqbal’s name as a Muslim theorist of an Islamic State.

    1) What I personally think that Iqbal’s theory and Farabi’s idea of global rule is actually the one that is closer to the state of Medina than the other threes’ and also because it was more applicable.

    2) In fact, Ibn-Khuldoon didn’t present any theory but defined the three or four kinds of government styles of Muslim rulers. If I’m not wrong, he didn’t have any theory of his own.

    3) As I have studied, Al-Mawardi and Al-Ghazali actually defined the idea of an Islamic state and the characteristics of a caliph according to their Islamic understandings. It wasn’t like a guidance for common Muslims to play their role in the establishment of an Islamic state or to run it.

    Note: The point is not the political reforms made by Muslims but only to identify the presenter of an Islamic state theory.

  6. Rubik says:

    I personally don’t consider any person a scholar just because he is certified by a madrassah and because he spent five, ten, fifteen, fourty years of his life in a particular circle. Along with that, life experiences, the knowledge of other sciences and an active role in a society is also necessary to become a scholar. Like Khulafa-e-Rashideen, the Ahl-e-Bait, the companions, Imam Ghazali, Ibn-Sina and hundreds of other Muslim personalities.
    There were thousands of Muslim scholars (the madrassah certified) present at that time, only Iqbal was able to introduce a theory of an Islamic state. That is because he didn’t memorize Qur’an and ahadith but understood the holy message. He wasn’t able to give fatwa on tiny little and sometimes stupid, unnecessary daily problems like regular scholars. But he solved the biggest problem for millions of Muslims of the sub-continent.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: