February 19, 2011 4 Comments
Three times since last year, I wrote a draft under this title “Chand Baluchistan” and deleted it. I don’t know why I did it, may be out of fear or may be because it’s not a popular issue among readers. Baji was in 10th Grade when she got a chance to visit Quetta with my aunt’s family. For years, she talked about the natural beauty she explored and the people there, how simple they were. I also wanted to go there, never got an opportunity except for an online exploration. But I always loved the lyrics ‘suraj hay Sarhad ki zameen, chand Baluchistan hay” and still sing them.
Seems like all human beings have been traveling throughout human history. Some as rulers invading territories to extend their kingdoms. Others migrated to escape tyrants and in search of peace. Some people claim ownership to a place because they are born there. Others disown it for the same reason and choose to flee to live with other nations.
The word Balochistan is derived from the Persian Language and was originally termed to mean “ignorant”. (*I took it as Bedouins or Baddoos in Arabs were considered the ignorant or uncivilized wanderers). Balochistan in Pashto is known as Godar. The Baloch Tribes claim themselves to have come from Zagros Mountains, Syria, Anatolia, Iran in the First Millennium CE. Some connect their origins to Medes and Kurds. Many of them believe that they were originally Semitic. Great tribal wars have been the part of Baluchistan’s history and the life-style of Baloch warriors as well. The worst aspect of tribal wars is that they gradually lose all the economic advantages that they could avail by developing diplomatic terms with their neighbours and are finally left with no choice but to compromise with superior powers in order to continue their “never-ending enmities”.
Baluchistan includes part of southeastern Iran, western Pakistan, and southwestern Afghanistan. Baluchistan in Pakistan has borders with Iran in the west, Afghanistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the north, Punjab and Sindh in the east and Arabian Sea to the south.
1) 7000-6000 BC – Hunting camps and lithic scatters
2) 6500 BC – Mehrgarh inhabitants in the history of Indus Valley Civilization
3) 4500 BC – Farming communities spread to parts of Balochistan and Sindh
4) 2500 BC – Became part of Harappan culture providing key resources to the expansive settlements fo the Indus river basin to the east.
5) 2000 BC – Became part of Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sassanid empires.
6) 650 BC – the part of region was ruled by Deoikes, a Persian King who said to have defeated by Alexander
7) 1st-3rd Century – Paratarajas/Parata Kings of Indo-Scythian and India-Parthian dynasty
8 ) 6th Century – The Baluch tribes were engaged in fight against Khosroes I Anoshervan, the Persian King. They moved to the southeastern region which is now known as Baluchistan. The immigrants joined the locals of Makkran, Sistan and Barahui and to become one strong force to fight against another Iranian group known as Pashtuns.
9) 7th Century – Arab armies controlled the area and many Balouch tribes embraced Islam.
10) 1000 AD – The area is named ‘Baluchistan’ after the numerous Baloch tribes, Iranian peoples who moved into the area from the west. I couldn’t find the detail if the natives were really courteous to let these immigrants abide there. Later on, wherever they originated from, they decided to call it their homeland.
11) 15th Century – Mir Chakar Khan Rind founded the Kingdom of Baluchistan. He defeated Lasharis (another Baluchi tribe) after thirty years of bloody civil war and was engaged in another fight against Afghan king Sher Shah Suri. Mir Chakar Khan Rind lost the battle, migrated to Punjab and settled there in Sahiwal District (1518). He tried to establish his kingdom there but was resisted by Persian Emperors. Years later, he was offered by Sher Shah Suri to shake hands but he refused and instead join the Mughal Armies of Empror Humayun under the command of his son, Mir Shahdad Khan (1555). He was rewarded a vast land in Punjab by the emperor.
12) 17th Century – Hamedzai Khan from Afghanistan ruled the area.
13) 19th Century – Khan of Kalat signed a treaty to bring Kharan, Makran and Lasbela (three main territories) under British Empire. Western Baluchistan was conquered by Iran and they fix the boundaries in1872.
14) 20th Century – Bahram Khan controlled Baluch lands and (1906) British Empire recognized him as the King of Baluchistan. His nephew Mir Dost Muhammad Khan continued till 1928 when Reza Shah raided from Persia and defeated Baluchis. Mir Dost Muhammad Khan was executed in Tehran prison.
16) 1958 – Gawadar was the part of Oman and it was sold to Pakistan in 1958 and was made part of Baluchistan in 1977 as Gawadar District. The natives of Gawadar were influenced with Arabs rather than Baluchis and Pashtoons. Oman has offered a billion dollar aid to rebuild infrastructure in Baluchistan.
17) 1972 – The provincial assembly of Baluchistan was constituted and held its first assembly session the same year.
This is very unfortunate and sad indeed that while millions of people show solidarity to their fellow-citizens, are sincere to work for their betterment so they can grow as one strong nation… knowing that each and every human being is originated from Adam and that everything belongs to the Creator… others instigated by their feudal lords and chiefs, pledge to safeguard the honour of their tribes, families and dynasties thus provide fuel for enmity and never-ending fights…