Social/Economic Development – 8th Grade Syllabus
February 4, 2012 Leave a comment
Part of the syllabus:
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT/ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:
Social Development can be defined as the process in which a country organizes its wealth and resources and utilizes them to improve the quality of life. It argues that social interaction is necessary for progress and relief as it helps in understanding problems and suggests possible solutions.
Economic Development is a process in which a country’s resources and imports are used to increase wealth and generate more revenue. It is meant to ensure better working opportunities, skilled labour, professional environment and an overall prosperous economic condition.
What is the common factor in all kinds of development? Why is it important to make right decisions about development?
‘Change’ is the common factor in all kinds of development. Any development is useless if it does not bring any change or if change is not accepted. Development brings changes that are irreversible. Any man-made features once planned and fixed cannot be reversed. That is why it is important to study all necessary geographical and social aspects carefully and make right decisions about development.
Why are ‘people’ considered the key resource for economic and social development?
People are the key resource for economic and social development. People are the manufacturer, labourer, inventor, producer, investor, organizer, operator, transporter and user. All natural features on land and natural resources are used up by people satisfy their needs and desires.
People’s needs vary because of various resources, geographical features and different climate. That is, people in countries with hot climate wear, eat and drink differently than those who live in countries with cold climates. Populations of agricultural countries have different working hours as compared to the industrial countries. The dwellers of coastal and mountainous areas face different weather challenges.
Countries of the world depend upon each other to grow their wealth for strong economy. The economists and traders plan for good financial opportunities, seek international markets and consider domestic and foreign economic policies. Agricultural countries look out for new ways and skilled labour for high yield of crops. Cattle and livestock need people who can use them and take care of them properly. Goods are traded and transported domestically and internationally by land vehicles or via air or ships.
All these tasks are planned and accomplished by people. People work for people, thus life goes on.
Countries vary in size geographically as well as by the number of population. Countries with low human resource need more people to work for them. Individuals of high populated regions emigrate to those countries in search of employment.
The emigrants need to know the laws of the land they travel to and must learn how to evolve in a strange society without creating issues.
Content that is not the part of syllabus…
What are the objectives of social/economic development?
The objectives of social development/community development are; developing progressive approach, discussing grave issues in order to reduce their negative impact, establishing good social relations, promoting good values, addressing health issues, counseling youth and elders in stress and depression, enhancing learning process and developing skills, gathering new ideas and organizing resources to work on them.
The objectives of economic development are to improve working conditions, to create jobs, to build a fair tax system, to improve quality of life through economic means.
The importance of social development/social interaction in Islam:
Islamic ethics are the soul of Islamic society. Social interaction in Islam is all about good manners, with the purpose to promote peace, respect, trust and unity. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, “I have been sent to perfect good manners.”
“And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or return it equally.” (Surah An-Nisa, 86) [The recommended greeting is to say “Assalam-u-Alaikum meaning ‘peace be upon you’]
“O you who believe! enter not houses other than your own, until you have asked permission and greeted those in them, that is better for you, in order that you remember.” (Surah An-Nur, 27)
“….But when you enter houses, greet one another with a greeting from Allah, blessed and good….” (Surah An-Nur, 61)
According to a hadith narrated by the Prophet (pbuh) are six; return greetings, accept invitation, good advice, visiting the sick, supplicate for the one who sneezes and attend the funeral procession. [The return of greeting is ‘wa alaikum as-salam meaning ‘may peace be upon you too/ the one who sneezes should say ‘Al-hamdulillah meaning ‘praise be to Allah’ and others around should utter ‘yarhamukallah’ meaning ‘may Allah have mercy on you’ which should be returned by saying ‘yahdeekumullahu khairun’ meaning ‘may Allah guide you to the goodness’.]
Abu Hauraira reported from the Prophet (pbuh), “every small bone of everyone has upon it a charitable act fro everyday upon which the sun rises. Bringing about justice between two is an act of charity. Helping a man get on his mount, lifting him onto it or helping him put his belongings onto it, is a charitable act. A good word is a charitable act. Every step you take toward the prayer is a charitable act. And removing a harmful thing from the path is a charitable act.”
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, “do not be envious of one another, do not inflate prices by overbidding against one another, do not hate one another, do not turn away from one another, do not enter into commercial transaction when others have entered into that (transaction), but be you, O slaves of Allah, as brothers. A Muslim is a brother of another Muslim, he neither oppresses him, nor does he lie to him, nor does he look down upon or humiliate him. Piety is here (and he pointed to his chest three times). It is evil enough for a Muslim to humiliate his brother. All things of a Muslim are sacred for his brother-in-faith; his blood, his property, and his honour.”
It is the study of social life of humans and animals and the human behaviour.
main branches of social science:
Anthropology, Economics, Education, Geography, History, Law, Linguistics, Political Science, Public Administration, Psychology and Sociology are the main branches of social science.
Quotes on change and development:
“But the Monasticism (isolation) which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them, but (they sought it) only to please Allah therewith, but that they did not observe it with the right observance”…. Al-Qur’an – Surah Hadeed/The Iron 27
“Verily! Allah does not change people’s condition (to a good one) unless they do not change their state themselves.” Al-Qur’an – Surah Ra’ad/The Thunder 11
“Facilitate things to people, do not make it hard for them; give them good tidings and do not make them run away.”…..Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) ‘s words reported by Anas bin Malik in Sahih Al-Bukhari
“Whoever would be glad to have his livelihood expanded and his life prolonged should maintain family ties.” Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
“Religion is sincerity.” Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
“You have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil.” Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, The Founder of Pakistan
“If we want to make this great State of Pakistan happy and prosperous, we should wholly and solely concentrate on the well-being of the people, and especially of the masses and the poor… you are free to go to your temples mosques or any other place of worship in this state of Pakistan.” Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
“The only effective power, therefore, that counteracts the forces of decay in a people is the rearing of self concentrated individuals. Such individuals alone reveal the depth of life. They disclose new standards in the light of which we begin to see that our environment is not wholly inviolable and requires revisions.” Dr. Muhammad Iqbal in “Reconstruction of Religious Thoughts in Islam”
“If you wish to be heard in the noise of this world, let your soul be dominated by a single idea. It is the man with a single idea who creates political and social revolutions, establishes empires and gives law to the world.” Allama Iqbal – Stray Reflections
“Some people are ok with doing nothing all day after they retire, but then some people if they had nothing to do would go mad and start banging their heads against a wall.” Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan
“Fulfill your mission and a great sublime future awaits your enthusiasm and action. Remember: ‘cowards die many times before death; the valiant never taste death but once.’ This is the only course of action which suits any self-respecting people and certainly the Muslim Nation.” Madr-e-Millat Fatimah Jinnah
“Businesses owned by responsible and organized merchants shall eventually surpass those owned by wealthy rulers.” Ibn Khuldun in Muqaddamah
“Man by nature is a social animal.” Aristotle
“Apply yourself both now and in the next life. Without effort, you cannot be prosperous. Though the land be good, You cannot have an abundant crop without cultivation.” Plato
“Do not waste your time on Social Questions. What is the matter with the poor is Poverty; what is the matter with the rich is Uselessness.” George Bernard Shaw
“Nothing is more useless in developing a nation’s economy than a gun, and nothing blocks the road to social development more than the financial burden of war.” King Hussein I
“I’m encouraging young people to become social business entrepreneurs and contribute to the world, rather than just making money. Making money is no fun. Contributing to and changing the world is a lot more fun.” Muhammad Yunus
Social sciences and Islam:
Islam is not just a religion or a code of law. It is a system which deals with the nature of man and it’s relation to the rest of Allah’s creations. It rejects the concept of monasticism and suggests people to live in communities. Islam does not require humans to act supernatural in normal condition and mesmerize the world by performing miracles. It encourages people to be good and become a dominate force over evil. It motivates people to surprise the world with courage, determination, patience and perseverance.
The life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is the best example for us all. He lived like an under-privileged man and his greatest miracle was that he still survived as the most distinguished person and the only man who ruled the lands and hearts as a prophet, a preacher, a leader, a law-maker, a politician, a ruler, a social worker, a reformer, a military commander and a conqueror.
He brought revolution in people’s personal and social life, built the economy, changed the way of politics, purified the faith from corrupted beliefs. He changed the ways people think and behave.
His solutions were a great relief for everyone.
Few years before his proclamation of prophethood, at the age of 35, he was trusted to solve the dispute of fixing of Hajr-ul-Aswad by the leaders of Makkah.
After Muslim’s migration to Madinah, he tied the migrants (muhajreen) and residents of Madinah (ansar) into the bonds of brotherhood.
For the prisoners of Battle of Badr, those who had nothing to pay for ransom, he suggested that they can teach ten people in Madinah and be free.
Not only that but he introduced to the world the men of desert as the most incredible rulers, generals, law-makers, administrators, educationists, scientists, researchers, explorers, thinkers, philosophers, poets, writers, preachers, scholars, reformers, soldiers and conquerors of the world. All of them led a social life in a unique way.
Muslim’s Participation in changing the World
Muslims were the master of all sciences. They ruled the world with the power of their knowledge.
Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi is considered the ‘father of algebra’.
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) is regarded as the ‘father of early modern medicine and clinical pharmacology’. He is also considered the ‘father of the fundamental concept of momentum in physics’ and a pioneer of aromatherapy.
Jabir ibn-Hayyan (Geber) honoured to be the ‘father of chemistry’.
Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir Al-Farghani who worked on the measurement of the diameter of the Earth and had the ‘Alfraganus’ crater on moon named after him.
Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi known as the ‘father of pediatrics’ and a pioneer of neurosurgery and ophthalmology.
Abu Rayhan Al-Beruni is called the ‘father of Indology’ and the ‘father of geodesy’ and was the ‘first anthropologist’.
Ibn Al-Haytham (Alhazen) is regarded as the ‘father of modern optics’ and the ‘founder of experimental psychology’.
Abu Sa’d Al-Ala’ ibn Sahl is credited with first discovering the law of refraction, usually called Snell’s law.
Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), the ‘father of experimental surgery’ and pioneer of experimental anatomy, experimental physiology, human dissection, autopsy and tracheotomy.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), the ‘father of modern surgery’.
The most prominent of all Abu Zayd Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Khaldun who impressed the world most with his work on historiography, sociology/social sciences, economics, Islamic theology, nutrition and astronomy. He wrote his first book “Lubabul-Muhassal” which is a commentary on Islamic theology of Fakhrud-din Al-Razi, at the age of 19. He is known as the ‘father of real sociology’.
Muhammad Yunus, the ‘father of micro-credit and micro-finance’.
Lotfi Ali-askerzadeh, the ‘father of Fuzzy Mathematics and Fuzzy set theory’.