Iqbal’s Stray Reflections!

“Individuals and nations die; but their children i.e. ideas never die.” — Pakistan is Allama Iqbal’s idea, it won’t die.

“I have the greatest respect for Aristotle, not only because I (living in the twentieth century) know him much better than the older generations of my community, but also because of his vast influence on the thought of my people.”

“I confess I owe a great deal to Hegel, Goethe, Mirza Ghalib, Mirza Abdul Qadir Bedil and Wordsworth.  The first two led me into the ‘inside’ of things, the third and fourth taught me how to remain oriental in spirit and expression after having assimilated foreign ideals of poetry, and the last saved me from atheism in my student days.”

The Jewish race has produced only two great men-Christ and Spinoza.  The former was God incarnated in the Son, the latter in the universe.  Spinoza was only a completion of the greatest teacher of his race.”

 

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PES

Pakistan Environmental Studies- 1:  Introduction

Earth is made up of hard and soft elements known as natural resources.  Some are found on the surface, in the air, under the oceans and many of them exist inside the earth.  Each element is a treasure, a blessing from our Lord Almighty.  Thus we all are dependent upon His mercy in each and every second of our lives.

یہ کرہ ارض جو اربوں لوگوں کا اس کائنات میں واحد گھر ہے۔۔۔ مختلف قسم کےعناصر سے مل کربنا ہے۔۔۔ کچھہ زمین کی سطح پر, کچھہ ہوا میں اور بہت سارے زیر زمین یا سمندروں میں۔۔۔ یہ سب کے سب الله کی نعمتیں اور اسکی رحمتوں کی نشانیاں ہیں۔۔۔ اس لحاظ سے ہم سب ایک ایک لمحہ الله کی رحمت پر زندہ ہیں۔۔۔

“When the earth is shaken to her (utmost) convulsion, and the earth throws up her  burdens (from within)”…..(Surah Az-Zilzal/The Earthquake)

“(It is) a Day whereon men will be like moths scattered about, and the mountains will be like carded wool”….(Surah Al-Qaari’a/The Calamity, The disaster)

“When the sun (with its spacious light) is folded up:  When the stars fall, losing their lustre:  When the mountains vanish (like a mirage);  When the she-camels, ten months with young, are left untended;  When the wild beasts are herded together (in the human habitations);  When the oceans boil over with a swell;”….. (Surah At-Takweer/The Overthrowing, Extinguished – Wrapping up Things)

“Then, when one blast is sounded on the Trumpet, and the earth is moved, and its mountains, and they are crushed to powder at one stroke”…… (Surah Al-Haa’qah/The Reality)

As a child and a teenager, I believed that the final hour (Yaum-ul-Hashr) will just occur suddenly in one hour time as we measure it by sixty minutes or three hundred and sixty seconds.  I was really terrified to imagine that how such an enormous system of life will be destroyed in few moments.  Then I was relaxed by some ahadith mentioning the signs of the end of the time.  I developed satisfactory feelings that at least I won’t be alive to face the calamities of the final hour as they will happen one by one.  The pleasure didn’t last for long.  The explanation of this couplet of Iqbal snatched away all my thoughtful comfort forever, producing a tremble that we are passing through the final hour.

یہ گھڑی محشر کی ہے تو عرصہ محشر میں ہے۔۔۔ پیش کر غافل عمل کوئی اگر دفتر میں ہے۔۔۔

The famous explanations describe the final hour as the time between the era of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and last sign that is the sun will rise from the west.  The catastrophes will go through different phases all interlinked and each generation will be the witness to the tribulations of their own time.  Each blaming the previous one for creating the mess ignoring their own participation in it’s progress.

Tsunamis, earthquakes, floods, melting glaciers, rising sea-levels, extinction of species of birds and animals and of forest as well, barren lands promising hunger…and the most of all, the deadly armaments.  Just a quick look at the causes of current environmental threats will reveal the most hideous facts to the people of wisdom that human beings are behind all this mess and have caused the signs of Hashr to happen so consistently and are energized for it’s accession.

Every nation, every religious group, every political party, every community, every criminal, both human genders, all are fueled up with the determination of wiping off each other from the face of the earth.  Failed in saving everything, I don’t know how do we succeed in reproducing human blood to shed for this purpose?

Men in explosions are scattered like moths.  Hills are broken to pebbles for construction.  Mountains are losing strength for nuclear explosions and are turning into dust-powder by bombardments.  The oceans’ surface are heating up.  Wild beasts are jailed in cages in human populations.  Earth vibrates and shakes with digging and drilling, spilling out it’s hidden treasures, revealing fossils to tell the stories that were buried in there long time ago.

 

Pakistan Environmental Studies – 2:

Allah (SWT) has gifted the world with natural resources of both kinds; renewable such as fruits and vegetables, cotton, meat, poultry, plants, flowers, trees, honey, herbs, solar energy and non-renewable such as fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, oil and natural gas), rocks, stones, gems, marble, many minerals and nuclear power.

The products manufactured by the reproducible resources can be prepared in proportionate to their usage, such as food products, medicines, skin products, cosmetics, vegetable oil, vegetable shortening, milk, wool, wax/candle, fabric, leather, paper, pencils, rubber, wood furniture, etc.

Other natural resources that may not be reproduced easily but possess energy to reproduce their product i.e. electricity are water and wind.  Wind Energy helps in generating electricity.  Hydrogen Energy generates electricity through flow of water.  Geothermal power generates electricity from the steam of heated water.  Bio Energy through plant materials and landfill or animals waste can help in producing heat and electricity.   Ocean Energy is helpful in producing electricity from the power of waves and trapping water in dams  by tidal energy.  Solar Energy produces steam (hot water) and electricity.

Non-renewable resources cannot be reproduced so people must be very careful about relying upon them.  They are present in a fix quantity.  Once they are used up, they can’t be replaced or refined to their original state.  They need to be replaced with reproducible alternatives before facing issues of scarcity.

Pakistan is blessed with all kind of natural treasures out of which the most precious is its fertile lands.  Being an agricultural country, it could have developed a very strong economic hold in the region and internationally.  Unfortunately, the land has been a victim of environmental damages caused by the negligence of its own citizens.  Polluting air, land and water is not the only sin that they have committed but are also guilty of destroying their agricultural fields and forests which could have been the main source to provide “roti, kapra and makan”.

Another interesting aspect of most of the non-reproducible items is that they are solid and are the part of the earth.  They make the mass of this rocky planet.  They exist in form of layers or filling up the inside of the ball people are living upon.  They are present in a proportionate to the geographical features of different areas both inside and on surface.  Mines are dug with the purpose to scarp them out.  Once these solid layers are removed, they leave a gap or a hollow space.  These kind of spaces can cause a collapse of the surface, shredding the size or dis-balance in it’s geological shape.  Just imagine a hard spinning ball made up of different solid materials and then it is extracted to build some long, wide, tall, heavy features on the its surface.  Now empty or semi-hollow from inside, would it be able to move as smoothly as it was before?  Would the surface be as steady as it was or will have chances of breaking up due to the burden on its surface?

http://www.islamfrominside.com/Pages/Articles/Ecology%20Environment%20and%20Islam.html

http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/jabs_0806_14.pdf……… (M. S. Sarir1 and M. Ilyas Durrani1
1Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan)

http://www.usislam.org/95earth.htm

 

Pakistan Environmental Studies – 3

Farming, Forestry, Fishing, Gardening:

So lets talk about the renewable resources.  They consist of two main types of living things; plants and animals.  Fruits and vegetables, flowers and trees, plants and herbs, crops, birds and animals, insects, sea animals.  They are very common and very important for us.

Since the beginning, all human activities have been based upon filling the stomach, covering the bodies and finding a roof to live under.  For centuries, men were accustomed to nature.  Human populations traveled and chose to live near water sources and woods.  Farm animals were part of their lives.  They were skilled in hunting.  They grew their own food.  They exchanged commodities for goods and services.  They didn’t have any tax system.  Their particular tribes were their sole interest to be loyal to.

If I am not wrong, it is Islam which introduced the concept of gathering tribes and nations as one human community, known as universal brotherhood.  Feeding in mind how different communities can be more useful to each other under the system of justice and equality, exchanging commodities, knowledge and skills, Islam prevailed.

Time has changed.  Skipping the causes of chaos, hatred and division, the reality that humans are facing right now is that, politically, they live inside fixed boundaries.  They can’t travel around as freely as did their past generations.  Economically, they are categorized in communities by profession.  The members of each profession are dependent upon others for their survival.  Socially, many families are recognized by their family talent, such as tailor, milkman, farmer, embroider, mason, gardener, goldsmith, iron-smith, butcher, confectioner, carpenter, weaver, driver etc.  Individuals are introduced by the occupation they choose, such as a physician, an engineer, a journalist, a writer, a singer, an actor, a teacher, a banker, a businessman etc.   They live under one government.  They all pay taxes to the government.  Their tax money is used to build infrastructure for everyone’s benefits.

Now, nothing exists anymore as a free land to travel to and occupy it to gain individual or tribal benefits or even for financial reasons.  Traveling means to live among other groups of people, respecting and not disturbing their way of life.

The world has become more economic as anything people desire to do cost them money.  People buy and sell and that balances the finance.  The economic activities that are based upon renewable resources and/or the products that are made from them is more reliable for stability than which involves the non-renewable material.  That is because they regrow.

Forestation, farming, gardening are good for health, give food for people and animals, provide habitat for birds and animals, supply ingredients for medicines and cosmetics.  They are part of our faith, a form of worshiping God Almighty as Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, “planting trees is ibadah”.

Wood as a reproducible item means a lot to our lives.  Wooden industry creates long-term jobs and has a wide room for innovation.  The wooden products are light weight for shipment, are recyclable and easily disposable.

Flowers are not only a symbol of beauty but they do contain substance for beauty products.  Honey is their healthiest food product.  Wax from honey combs is used for making candles for light.

The solution to food crisis and unemployment simply lies in growing more and more food and focusing on animal agriculture.  Farming not only satisfies the basic food requirements but also sustains industries with the purpose of manufacturing food based products.  Wool and leather are two very common and very important worldwide commodities.

A country like Pakistan which is blessed with more than forty-five big and small rivers and streams and a long and alive coastal line should have no excuse for lacking fishing harbors and their related activities.

The entire textile and fashion industry depends upon cotton crops.  Hotels, restaurants and caterers cannot survive without a reasonable supply from live stocks and poultry farms.  The educational system anywhere is founded upon the use of paper and pencils, which cannot be prepared without trees.

Problems in Pakistan:

1) Agriculture, fishing, forestry and livestock sector are still run by non-educated part of our population.  They are still not reached and supported by experts and researchers of those fields.  Their educated consumers don’t take part in solving their problems at any level.

2) The entire educational system is missing subject/courses related to reproduction of food and animals.

3) The educated minority mostly consists of professionals with community services.  They provide services by eating food, using herbal supplies, wearing uniforms, using stationary items, prescribing medicines, building houses, driving vehicles, delivering mails and packages, using computers — whatever they are using, they buy it, don’t grow the resources.

4) Feudal system and lack of interest of educated people has resulted in moving villagers to main cities.  Their migration has caused two simultaneous effects on our economy; decreasing food producers, increasing food consumers along with beggary, homelessness and health problems.

 

 

 

Elderly People of Pakistan

People say “old is gold” and usually use this phrase to refer to wisdom of old times.  What I think of it is “old gold is pure”.  Old coins, old cars, old-homes, old utensils, old fabrics, even old books are precious.  Or may be we are just used to valuing and honoring things of times when we were not present.

Old age in Pakistan was once regarded as symbol of family bonding.  Now it has become a curse.  That trust has lost its value.  We can see our elders past sixties disrespected at homes, admitted in adult-homes, Edhi centers, in mental hospitals or rolling on the streets begging for a piece of bread.  Haunted by their loneliness, they wait for someone or anyone who can just listen to what they want to say.  Their physical weakness doesn’t allow them to enjoy life as before.  All they want is attention, which can save them from the feeling of being neglected or ignored.

Truth is always bitter but for oldies it affects like a death sentence that their own children and relatives on whom they focused every second have no time for them in return.  The youth can’t be blamed at this point because they have to move forward for their life experiences and for their younger ones.

However, something must be done for aged people of our society.  Most of them don’t realize that they can be useful at this age.  May be they are still not matured enough to plan life at this age (that could be because they are not used to plan things) but have experience and stories of their time which they can share with others.  They can get rid of  negative feelings, depression, tension and the loneliness by helping the ones like them.

They can work as counselors as be awarded and rewarded for their services.  They can chat with each other, play board games, listen to each others’ stories, read newspapers or books and discuss the issues.  They can go to other institutions and spend some time with patients to relax them.  If they are educated, they can help children in reading or writing.  They can arrange social events at their places or in public parks.  They can help in neighborhood libraries, Montessori and schools for couple of hours.  They can play a role in forming positive public opinion about grave issues.   They can be a good volunteer at mosques.

I read a hadith (missing the reference) that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, “the one who wastes his youth time, is lost in his old age”.  I don’t take it like losing mental or physical abilities or capabilities but the chance of peaceful and satisfactory survival.

Allama Iqbal, Quaid-e-Azam, Ms. Fatime Jinnah, Begum Rana Liaquat Ali Khan, Ms. Fatima Surayya Bajya, Abdus-Sattar Edhi and his wife Bilqees Edhi and many others are the best examples.  They didn’t waste their youth time.   They didn’t work for themselves or to benefit their children or relatives.  They dedicated their lives for others.  For that reason, they are loved and respected by millions.  People remember them in prayers and in good words.  This is their reward in this world.  The best they will get in the Hereafter, inshallah.

ویسے  چاند, ستارے, زمین, آسمان, آلو, گوبھی تو الله نے جیسے بنادئے۔۔۔ لیکن لڈو اور گلاب جامن کودوسری شکل دی جاسکتی ہے ۔۔۔ کہ نہیں۔۔۔
خواتین پہ یاد آیا کہ امریکہ کبھی ایسی پارٹ ٹائم جابس بھی ہوتی تھیں کہ مثلا کسی ضعیف خاتون سے کچھہ گھنٹے باتیں کرنی ہیں اور بس۔۔۔ اصل میں وہ لوگ بھی زندگی دولت اور آسائشوں کے حصول میں گذار دیتے ہیں اور آخر میں جب سب کچھہ مل جاتا ہے تو اکیلے رہ جاتے ہیں۔۔۔ جو اختیارات انھوں نے خود  کو دیے ہوتے ہیں وہی انکی اولادیں بھی مانگتی ہیں وہ بھی  مصروف ہو جاتی ہیں۔۔۔ یہ بوڑھوں کے اداروں میں یا کبھی گھر پر خاموشی سے اپنے ختم ہونے کا انتظار کرتے ہیں۔۔۔ کچھہ خاموشی کی وجہ سے ذہنی مریض ہوجاتے ہیں۔۔۔ انکے لئے بات کرنے والوں کو ڈھونڈا جاتاہے۔۔۔
ہمارے ہاں بھی حالات مختلف نہیں۔۔۔ صرف فرق یہ ہے کہ ہماری خواتین ملازمت اور آسائشوں کے حصول کے بجائے ان مسائل میں زندگی ضایع کردیتی ہیں جن میں سے آدھے سے زیادہ خود انھوں نے ہی پیدا کئے ہوتے ہیں۔۔۔ انکی اولادیں بھی ان مسائل میں پھنس جاتی ہیں۔۔۔ کافی عرصہ تک توان دونوں یعنی والدین اور اولادوں کابھرم والدین اور بزرگوں کے حقوق والی حدیثوں کی وجہ سے رہ گیا۔۔۔ لیکن پچھلے بیس تیس سالوں میں جس بیدردی کے ساتھہ ہمارے ہاں اخلاقی روایات کو پامال کیا گیا, انسانیت کی تذلیل کی گئی, قومی یکجہتی کو ختم کیا گیا, اسلام سے دامن بچایا گیا۔۔۔۔۔۔ نتیجہ یہ ہوا کہ چھوٹوںنے بھی بڑوں کا لحاظ ختم کردیا۔۔۔
عام گھریلو ماحول کے اخلاقی مجرموں نے  گلی محلوں سڑکوں اور پورے معاشرے پراثر ڈالا۔۔۔ توکرپشن عام ہوگئی۔۔۔ بدامنی اور خوف پھیلا۔۔۔ معاشی حالات بد سے بد تر ہوگئے۔۔۔ اسکے قصوروار صرف مرد نہیں۔۔۔ گھریلو خواتین اس جرم میں ان کی شریک ہوتی ہیں۔۔۔ کیونکہ گھر کی ضروریات کو پورا کرنے کے لئے ہی تو مرد باہر نکلتے ہیں۔۔۔۔۔۔ خیر مختصرا یہ کہ اب ہمارے ہاں ضعیف لوگ ایدھی ہومز, پاگل خانوں یا سڑکوں پر بھیک مانگتے پائے جاتے ہیں۔۔۔
ہو میرا کام غریبوں کی حمایت کرنا, درد مندوں سے ضعیفوں سے محبت کرنا۔۔۔ مجھے اقبال کے اس پیغام پرکوئی اعتراض نہیں۔۔۔ لیکن ہم کبھی جوانی میں یہ کیوں نہیں سوچتے کہ ہمیں بھی ضعیف ہوناہے لہذا ایسا نظام بنائیں جس میں ہمارے لئے ایک عزت کی جگہ موجود ہو۔۔۔ بڑھاپا تو خود سب سے بڑی غربت اور دردمندی کی علامت ہوتا ہے۔۔۔ اس میں اگرعزت نہ ہو تو باقی کیا رہ جاتا ہے۔۔۔
ایک حدیث کبھی پڑھی تھی کہ ‘جو اپنی جوانی ضائع کرتا ہے, الله اسکا بڑھاپا برباد کردیتا ہے’۔۔۔۔۔۔ میرا دل کرتا ہے کہ ساٹھہ یااس سے زیادہ عمرکے تمام بوڑھے مرد عورتوں سے جوگھروں, سڑکوں, ایدھی سینٹرز یا ذہنی امراض کے ہسپتالوں میں ہیں۔۔۔ ان سے پوچھوں کہ پچھلی عمر میں کیا کیا جو اب یہ حالت ہے۔۔۔ ایک برے نظام کو پروش کرنے میں جو کردارادا کیا تھا اسکا انجام اورکیا ہو سکتا ہے۔۔۔ اور اب بھی کیا ارادے ہیں۔۔۔
یہ مفلوک, رشتہ داروں پراور معاشرے پر بوجھہ بنے بزرگ بہت کام آسکتے ہیں اور اپنی غفلتوں کا کفارہ ادا کرسکتے ہیں۔۔۔ ان کے پاس تجربہ ہوتا ہے, تاریخ ہوتی ہے جسے یہ دوسروں تک پہنچا سکتے ہیں۔۔۔ جنکےپاس تعلیم ہے وہ بچوں کو پڑھا سکتے ہیں۔۔۔ جنکے پاس ہنر ہے وہ ہنر سکھا سکتے ہیں۔۔۔ گھروں بیٹھے بزرگ اولڈ ہومز یا دوسرے مراکز پر جاکر اپنی عمر کے لوگوں کا دل بہلا سکتے ہیں, انکے ساتھہ ملکر کوئی مشاعرہ یا کوئی اور تخلیقی تقریب کرسکتے ہیں۔۔۔
اس عمرمیں عام انسان کی ضروریات دو وقت کھانے, صاف ستھرے دو جوڑی کپڑوں اور ایک پرسکون کونے تک سمٹ آتی ہیں۔۔۔ جسمانی کمزوری اور کوی نہ کوئی بیماری کی وجہ سے مشقت والا کام نہیں کر سکتے۔۔۔ لیکن خالی بیٹھہ کراگلے پانچ, دس, پندرہ, بیس سالوں میں دنیا سے جانے کا انتظار کرنا بھی ایک طرح کی موت ہی ہے۔۔۔ ایسی زندگی جس میں سوائے حسرتوں, شکایتوں,  جھنجھلاہٹ, ٹینشن اور ڈیپریشن کے کچھہ نہ ہو۔۔۔
عمر کے آخری سالوں کو بہترین طریقے سے گذارنے کی مثالیں تو علامہ اقبال, قائداعظم, مادر ملت محترمہ فاطمہ جناح, بیگم رعنا لیاقت علی خان, فاطمہ ثریا بجیا, عبدالستارایدھی صاحب, بلقیس ایدھی صاحبہ کی صورت میں موجود ہیں۔۔۔ لیکن یہ وہی لوگ ہیں جنھوں نے اپنی جوانی کو ضایع نہیں کیا۔۔۔ صرف اپنی زندگی, خاندان اور رشتہ داروں کی بہتری پر وقت صرف نہیں کیا بلکہ ملک و قوم اور معاشرے کی تعمیر کابوجھہ بھی اپنے کندھوں پر اٹھایا۔۔۔ دنیا میں انکی جزا یہ ہے کہ لوگ انکی عزت کرتے ہیں, دعائیں دیتے ہیں, ان کی نیتوں اور خلوص پر شک نہیں کرتے۔۔۔آخرت میں بھی انکا مقام اعلی ہوگا انشاءالله۔۔۔
عام لوگوں کی بات کریں تو کچھہ لوگ امی, بابا, ماما اور مجاہد حسین صاحب جیسے بھی ملیں گے جنکا بڑھاپا مسلسل مصروفیت,فکر, خلوص, مدد, خدمت, اور عزم وحوصلے کا دوسرا نام ہے۔۔۔

Little Boy, Little Girl

This song is one of my childhood memories. I wished if it was made the part of the school assemblies.

I sang it to my daughter, to make sure the message is conveyed.  As a mother, I had to do it with no time delayed.

As she needed an explanation, who were Sir Syed and Iqbal?  What did they have to do with knowledge and standing tall?

I told her, they were the visionaries of Islamic history.  They played their role with pen, solved the mystery.

The mystery of nationalism, patriotism and passion.  That the Muslims are only bound to freedom, that’s the only obsession.

They don’t live slave, they like to keep none.  They deliver the rights, as ordained by the Mighty One.

میں چھوٹا سا اک لڑکا ہوں پر کام کروں گا بڑے بڑے
جتنے بھی لڑاکے لڑکے ہیں ان سب کو نیک بناؤ
ں گا
جوبچھڑے ہوئے ہمجولی ہیں ان سب کو ایک بناؤں گا
سب آپس میں مل جائیں گے جو رہتے ہیں اب لڑے لڑے
میں چھوٹا سا اک لڑکا ہوں پر کام کروں گا بڑے بڑے
یہ علم کی ہیں جوروشنیاں میں گھرگھرمیں پھیلاؤں گا
تعلیم کا پرچم لہرا کر میں سرسید بن جاؤں گا
بیکار گذاروں عمر بھلا کیوں اپن
ے گھر میں پڑے پڑے
میں چھوٹا سا اک لڑکا ہوں پر کام کروں گا بڑے بڑے
میں چاروں طرف لے جاؤں گا اقبال نے جو پیغام دیا
میں ہی وہ پرندہ ہوں جس کو اس نے شہباز نام دیا
اب میرےپروں سے چمکیں گے سب ہیرے موتی جڑے جڑے
میں چھوٹا سا اک لڑکا ہوں پر کام کروں گا بڑے بڑے

When a nation lives in dark ages, it’s literates feel no shame on being slaved, it’s illiterates take pride in their ignorance, the educational institutions are not the source of knowledge and inspiration anymore.  Then the little poems are used for innocent minds to remind of their legacy and continue till eternity.


Theory of Islamic State

Abu’l Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al-Mawardi (350-436 A.H/972-1058 A.D — age 86) was the first political thinker in the history of Islam.  He was from Shafa’i fiqh.  (Correction: The course book says 364 A.H/975 A.D… while http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Al-Mawardi mentions 448 after Hijra and Wikipedia says 972 A.D…The first Hijri year was 622 A.D…. The difference between 972 and 622 is 350, which means he was born in 350 A.H)

Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ahmed al-Ghazali (436-489 A.H/1058-1111 A.D — age 53) was born near Tus in Iran.  He wrote many books on political issues out of which “Ihya-ulUloom/The Revival of Religious Sciences” was his masterpiece.

Abu Zaid Abd ar-Rahman ibn Khaldun (710-784 A.H/1332-1406 A.D — 74) was born at Tunis in an Arab family.  He was a historian, a political scientist, a scholar of Islamic law and the founder of the sciences of civilization or umran (as he called a new science) now known as sociology. (Correction: The course book says 724 A.H while Wikipedia and http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ik/klf.htm say 732 A.H…the difference between 1332 and 622 is 710 which means he was born in 710 A.H)

Were these three the only political scientists or experts of Muslim ummah who dared to present a present the theory of an Islamic state?  Al-Mawardi appeared as the first political thinker of Islam after a gap of more than three hundred years after the death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in 10 A.H/632 A.D.  What were the Muslims doing during that time?  1406 to 2010 – 604 years have passed idle…or do we know any grand personalities who have made achievements on scholarly basis and gained international fame…Allama Iqbal (1255-1316 A.H/1877-1938 A.D — age 61), Maulana Mawdudi (1903-1979 A.D — age 76), Hurun Yahya, Shiekh Hamza Yusuf….. got a new name Hammad yousuf from Pakistan (http://metaexistence.org/timeline3.htm) as the philosopher and founder of MetaExistence school of thought and the presenter of a new political system against the Western one but couldn’t find more about it.

The fact is that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the first political scientist and founder of a Islamic state.  Then the first four caliphs contributed politically to improve the system and so on.

Al-Mawardi, Al-Ghazali and Ibn-Khaldun… Can Allama Iqbal be counted as the fourth political scientist/political thinker, why or why not?  He wasn’t only a poet or a thinker or a philosopher.  He was a scholar of Qur’an as he explained it in poetic form and that distinguishes him from all other scholars…a better scholar that he argued with his father regarding the change of faith and convinced him.  He knew the languages.  He knew the history.  He was a political scientist, the presenter of a political theory….the ideology which helped in forming the world’s largest Islamic state.  The whole political movement of Pakistan was based upon his theory.

The spirit of 1947 can be revived not only by remembering and mourning over the sacrifices of the common Muslims, but also by recalling the theory, the ideology, by discussing different aspects of the movement in the classrooms.