September 18, 2011 1 Comment
The Art of Discussion or Argument that Qur’an teaches:
Surah Al-Anbiya/The Prophets 52-66 (Prophet Ibraheem/Abraham peace be upon him)
“Behold! He (Abraham) said to his father and his people, “What are these images, to which you are (so assiduously) devoted?”
They said, “We found our fathers worshipping them.”
He said, “Indeed you have been in manifest error – you and your fathers.”
They said, “Have you brought us the Truth, or are you one of those who jest?”
He said, “Nay, your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, He Who created them (from nothing): and I am a witness to this (Truth)…. “And by Allah, I have a plan for your idols – after you go away and turn your backs”….. So he broke them to pieces, (all) but the biggest of them, that they might turn (and address themselves) to it.
They said, “Who has done this to our gods? He must indeed be some man of impiety!” …. They said, “We heard a youth talk of them: He is called Abraham.” ….. They said, “Then bring him before the eyes of the people, that they may bear witness.” ….. They said, “Are you the one that did this with our gods, O Abraham?” ….
He said: “Nay, this was done by – this is their biggest one! ask them, if they can speak intelligently!” ….. So they turned to themselves and said, “Surely you are the ones in the wrong!” …..
Then were they confounded with shame: (they said), “You know well that these (idols) do not speak!” (Abraham) said, “Do you then worship, besides Allah, things that can neither be of any good to you nor do you harm?”
Surah Al-Baqarah/The Cow 258 (Prophet Ibraheem/Abaraham peace be upon him)
Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibrâhim (Abraham) about his Lord (Allâh), because Allâh had given him the kingdom?
When Ibrâhim (Abraham) said (to him): “My Lord (Allâh) is He Who gives life and causes death.”
He said, “I give life and cause death.”
Ibrâhim (Abraham) said, “Verily! Allâh causes the sun to rise from the east; then cause it you to rise from the west.”
So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allâh guides not the people, who are Zâlimûn (wrong-doers).
Surah Al-An’aam/The Cattle 74-83 (Prophet Ibrahim/Abraham peace be upon him)
“Lo! Abraham said to his father Azar: “Do you take idols as gods? For I see you and your people in manifest error.”
So also did We show Abraham the power and the laws of the heavens and the earth, that he might (with understanding) have certitude.
When the night covered him over, He saw a star: He said: “This is my Lord.” But when it set, He said: “I love not those that set.”
When he saw the moon rising in splendour, he said: “This is my Lord.” But when the moon set, He said: “unless my Lord guide me, I shall surely be among those who go astray.”
When he saw the sun rising in splendour, he said: “This is my Lord; this is the greatest (of all).” But when the sun set, he said: “O my people! I am indeed free from your (guilt) of giving partners to Allah.
“For me, I have set my face, firmly and truly, towards Him Who created the heavens and the earth, and never shall I give partners to Allah.”
His people disputed with him. He said: “(Come) you to dispute with me, about Allah, when He (Himself) has guided me? I fear not those you associate with Allah. Unless my Lord wills, (nothing can happen). My Lord comprehends in His knowledge all things. Will you not (yourselves) be admonished?
“How should I fear those you associate with Allah, when you fear not to give partners to Allah without any warrant having been given to you? Which of (us) two parties have more right to security? (tell me) if you know.
“It is those who believe and confuse not their beliefs with wrong – that are (truly) in security, for they are on (right) guidance.”
That was the proof about Us, which We gave to Abraham (to use) against his people: We raise whom We will, degree after degree: for your Lord is full of wisdom and knowledge.
Surah Al-Baqarah/The Cow 260 (Prophet Ibraheem/Abraham peace be upon him)
And (remember) when Ibrahim said, “My Lord! Show me how You give life to the dead.”
He (Allah) said: “Do you not believe?”
He (Ibrahim) said: “Yes (I believe), but to be stronger in faith.”
He said: “Take four birds, then cause them to incline towards you (then slaughter them, cut them into pieces, and then put a portion of them on every hill, and call them, they will come to you in haste. And know that Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.”
Surah Al-Araaf/The Heights 143 (Prophet Moosa/Moses peace be upon him)
When Moses came to the place appointed by Us, and his Lord addressed him, He said: “O my Lord! show (Thyself) to me, that I may look upon thee.”
Allah said: “By no means you can see Me (direct); But look upon the mount; if it abide in its place, then shall you see Me.” When his Lord manifested His glory on the Mount, He made it as dust. And Moses fell down in a swoon.
When he recovered his senses he said: “Glory be to You! to You I turn in repentance, and I am the first to believe.”
Surah Ash-Shua’raa/The Poets 18-51 (Prophet Moosa/Moses peace be upon him)
(Pharaoh) said: “Did we not cherish you as a child among us, and did you not stay in our midst many years of your life? And you did a deed of your which (you know) you did, and you are an ungrateful (wretch)!”
Moses said: “I did it then, when I was in error. So I fled from you (all) when I feared you; but my Lord has (since) invested me with judgment (and wisdom) and appointed me as one of the apostles. “And this is the favour with which you do reproach me,- that you had enslaved the Children of Israel!”
Pharaoh said: “And what is the ‘Lord and Cherisher of the worlds’?”
(Moses) said: “The Lord and Cherisher of the heavens and the earth, and all between,- if you want to be quite sure.”
(Pharaoh) said to those around: “Did you not listen (to what he says)?”
(Moses) said: “Your Lord and the Lord of your fathers from the beginning!”
(Pharaoh) said: “Truly your apostle who has been sent to you is a veritable madman!”
(Moses) said: “Lord of the East and the West, and all between! if you only had sense!”
(Pharaoh) said: “If you do put forward any god other than me, I will certainly put you in prison!”
(Moses) said: “Even if I showed you something clear (and) convincing?
So (Moses) threw his rod, and behold, it was a serpent, plain (for all to see)! And he drew out his hand, and behold, it was white to all beholders!
(Pharaoh) said to the Chiefs around him: “This is indeed a sorcerer well- versed: His plan is to get you out of your land by his sorcery; then what is it you counsel?
They said: “Keep him and his brother in suspense (for a while), and dispatch to the Cities heralds to collect- And bring up to you all (our) sorcerers well-versed.” So the sorcerers were got together for the appointment of a day well-known, and the people were told: “Are you (now) assembled?- “That we may follow the sorcerers (in religion) if they win?”
So when the sorcerers arrived, they said to Pharaoh: “Of course – shall we have a (suitable) reward if we win?
He said: “Yea, (and more),- for you shall in that case be (raised to posts) nearest (to my person).”
Moses said to them: “Throw you – that which you are about to throw!”
So they threw their ropes and their rods, and said: “By the might of Pharaoh, it is we who will certainly win!”
Then Moses threw his rod, when, behold, it straightway swallows up all the falsehoods which they fake!
Then did the sorcerers fall down, prostrate in adoration, Saying: “We believe in the Lord of the Worlds, The Lord of Moses and Aaron.”
Said (Pharaoh): “Believe you in Him before I give you permission? surely he is your leader, who has taught you sorcery! but soon shall you know! “Be sure I will cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will cause you all to die on the cross!”
They said: “No matter! for us, we shall but return to our Lord! Only, our desire is that our Lord will forgive us our faults, that we may become foremost among the believers!”
And Solomon was David’s heir. He said: “O ye people! We have been taught the speech of birds, and on us has been bestowed (a little) of all things: this is indeed Grace manifest (from Allah.)” And before Solomon were marshalled his hosts,- of Jinns and men and birds, and they were all kept in order and ranks. At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: “O ye ants, get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it.”
So he smiled, amused at her speech; and he said: “O my Lord! so order me that I may be grateful for Thy favours, which thou hast bestowed on me and on my parents, and that I may work the righteousness that will please Thee: And admit me, by Thy Grace, to the ranks of Thy righteous Servants.”
And he took a muster of the Birds; and he said: “Why is it I see not the Hoopoe? Or is he among the absentees? I will certainly punish him with a severe penalty, or execute him, unless he bring me a clear reason (for absence).”
But the Hoopoe tarried not far: he (came up and) said: “I have compassed (territory) which thou hast not compassed, and I have come to thee from Saba with tidings true. I found (there) a woman ruling over them and provided with every requisite; and she has a magnificent throne. I found her and her people worshipping the sun besides Allah. Satan has made their deeds seem pleasing in their eyes, and has kept them away from the Path,- so they receive no guidance,- (Kept them away from the Path), that they should not worship Allah, Who brings to light what is hidden in the heavens and the earth, and knows what you hide and what you reveal.
“(Allah)!- there is no god but He!- Lord of the Throne Supreme!”
(Solomon) said: “Soon shall we see whether you have told the truth or lied! Go you, with this letter of mine, and deliver it to them: then draw back from them, and (wait to) see what answer they return”
(The queen) said: “You chiefs! here is delivered to me – a letter worthy of respect. It is from Solomon, and is (as follows): ‘In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful: Be you not arrogant against me, but come to me in submission (to the true Religion).'”
She said: “You chiefs! advise me in (this) my affair: no affair have I decided except in your presence.”
They said: “We are endued with strength, and given to vehement war: but the command is with you; so consider what you will command.”
She said: “Kings, when they enter a country, despoil it, and make the noblest of its people its meanest thus do they behave. But I am going to send him a present, and (wait) to see with what (answer) return (my) ambassadors.”
Now when (the embassy) came to Solomon, he said: “Will you give me abundance in wealth? But that which Allah has given me is better than that which He has given you! Nay it is you who rejoice in your gift! Go back to them, and be sure we shall come to them with such hosts as they will never be able to meet: We shall expel them from there in disgrace, and they will feel humbled (indeed).”
He said (to his own men): “You chiefs! which of you can bring me her throne before they come to me in submission?”
Said an ‘Ifrit, of the Jinns: “I will bring it to you before you rise from your counsil: indeed I have full strength for the purpose, and may be trusted.”
Said one who had knowledge of the Book: “I will bring it to you within the twinkling of an eye!” Then when (Solomon) saw it placed firmly before him, he said: “This is by the Grace of my Lord!- to test me whether I am grateful or ungrateful! and if any is grateful, truly his gratitude is (a gain) for his own soul; but if any is ungrateful, truly my Lord is Free of all Needs, Supreme in Honour !”
He said: “Transform her throne out of all recognition by her: let us see whether she is guided (to the truth) or is one of those who receive no guidance.”
So when she arrived, she was asked, “Is this your throne?” She said, “It was just like this; and knowledge was bestowed on us in advance of this, and we have submitted to Allah (in Islam).”
And he diverted her from the worship of others besides Allah. for she was (sprung) of a people that had no faith.
She was asked to enter the lofty Palace: but when she saw it, she thought it was a lake of water, and she (tucked up her skirts), uncovering her legs. He said: “This is but a palace paved smooth with slabs of glass.”
She said: “O my Lord! I have indeed wronged my soul: I do (now) submit (in Islam), with Solomon, to the Lord of the Worlds.”
Surah Yusuf/Prophet Yusuf 22-29 (Prophet Yusuf/Joseph peace be upon him)
When Joseph attained His full manhood, We gave him power and knowledge: thus do We reward those who do right. But she in whose house he was, sought to seduce him from his (true) self: she fastened the doors, and said: “Now come, thou (dear one)!”
He said: “(Allah) forbid! truly (thy husband) is my lord! he made my sojourn agreeable! truly to no good come those who do wrong!”
And (with passion) did she desire him, and he would have desired her, but that he saw the evidence of his Lord: thus (did We order) that We might turn away from him (all) evil and shameful deeds: for he was one of Our servants, sincere and purified.
So they both raced each other to the door, and she tore his shirt from the back: they both found her lord near the door. She said: “What is the (fitting) punishment for one who formed an evil design against thy wife, but prison or a grievous chastisement?”
He said: “It was she that sought to seduce me – from my (true) self.”
And one of her household saw (this) and bore witness, (thus):- “If it be that his shirt is rent from the front, then is her tale true, and he is a liar! But if it be that his shirt is torn from the back, then is she the liar, and he is telling the truth!”
So when he saw his shirt,- that it was torn at the back,- (her husband) said: “Behold! It is a snare of you women! truly, mighty is your snare! O Joseph, pass this over! (O wife), ask forgiveness for your sin, for truly you have been at fault!”